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泰國遭遇幾十年來最嚴重的干旱,供水枯竭

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2020年02月21日

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Water supplies dry up as Thailand reels under worst drought in decades

泰國遭遇幾十年來最嚴重的干旱,供水枯竭

A shorter-than-normal monsoon, below-average rainfall, and El Nino condition leading to abnormally high temperatures drove Thailand to its worst drought in more than 40 years.

一場短于往年的季風,低于平均水平的降雨量,以及導致反常高溫的厄爾尼諾現象,使泰國遭遇了40多年來最嚴重的干旱。

A map released by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observatory on February 15, 2020 showed below-normal subsurface soil moisture in large parts of southeast Asia. Lower Mekong Basin countries, including Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam were all affected by a delayed and short monsoon, according to the Mekong River Commission. But Thailand was the worst hit. An El Nino event also led to increased temperatures and high evapotranspiration in the region.

美國國家航空航天局(NASA)于2020年2月15日發布的一份地圖顯示,東南亞大部分地區的地下土壤濕度低于正常水平。湄公河委員會表示,包括老撾、柬埔寨和越南在內的湄公河下游國家都受到了季風推遲和短暫影響。但泰國受到的打擊最為嚴重。厄爾尼諾事件也導致該地區氣溫升高和高蒸散發。

泰國遭遇幾十年來最嚴重的干旱,供水枯竭

NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission measures water content of soils and can detect water in the top five centimeters of the ground.

美國宇航局的土壤水分主動被動(SMAP)任務測量土壤的含水量,可以探測到地面頂部5厘米的水。

The drought has exhausted the southeast Asian country's major reservoirs, which held less than half the water they could. River water levels were so low that salt water from seas entered them, affecting drinking water supplies. Low-lying areas have been the worst-affected by salt water intrusion.

干旱已經耗盡了這個東南亞國家的主要水庫,這些水庫只儲存了不到一半的水。河水水位很低,海水灌入,影響了飲用水供應。低洼地區是受海水入侵影響最嚴重的地區。

“This is one of the signs showing the drought situation in low-lying areas in Thailand this year is worse than before,” said Senaka Basnayake, director of Climate Resilience at the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center in Thailand.

泰國亞洲災害準備中心的氣候恢復主任Senaka Basnayake說:“這是今年泰國低洼地區的干旱情況比以前更嚴重的跡象之一。”

The drought has pressured Thailand’s economy, which employs over 11 million people in farming and crop production. The country, one of the world’s leading sugar exporters, was expected to produce 30 per cent less sugar than previous years.

干旱給泰國經濟帶來了壓力。泰國有超過1100萬人從事農業和農作物生產。作為全球主要的食糖出口國之一,中國的食糖產量預計將比前幾年減少30%。

Other Lower Mekong Basin countries were also bracing for the worst. The Mekong Delta in southwest Vietnam received about 8 per cent less precipitation last monsoon, according to the country's agriculture ministry. The Earth Observatory reported that saltwater intrusion has started damaging rice fields in Trá Vinh. More than 10,000 hectares of winter-spring rice have been affected by water shortage in the province. If such conditions prevailed, about 94,000 hectares could be affected.

湄公河下游的其他國家也在做最壞的打算。越南農業部表示,去年雨季,該國西南部的湄公河三角洲降水量減少了約8%。地球天文臺報告說,鹽水入侵已經開始破壞特拉溫的稻田。該省超過1萬公頃的冬春稻受到缺水的影響。如果這種情況普遍存在,大約94 000公頃的土地可能受到影響。


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